About & Glossary

We are NRX, but we take NRX to mean many different things, including Neo-Regal Axioms, New Regal Attraction, etc.

But firstly, and foremostly: we are NGE.

New Gothic Empyrium.

from which all gothlike eternally flows, in rivers of milk and honey.

 

 

Our glossary is the tradition of Indo-European words.

liberal (adj.) Look up liberal at Dictionary.commid-14c., “generous,” also “selfless; noble, nobly born; abundant” (late 14c.) and, in a bad sense, “extravagant, unrestrained” (early 15c.), from Old French liberal “befitting free people; noble, generous; willing, zealous” (12c.), from Latin liberalis “noble, gracious, munificent, generous,” literally “of freedom, pertaining to or befitting a free person,” from liber “free, unrestricted, unimpeded; unbridled, unchecked, licentious.”

This is conjectured to be from PIE *leudh-ero-, which probably originally meant “belonging to the people,” though the precise semantic development is obscure; but compare frank (adj.). This was a suffixed form of the base *leudh- (2) “people” (source also of Old Church Slavonic ljudu, Lithuanian liaudis, Old English leod, German Leute “nation, people;” Old High German liut“person, people”).

Who hath indeed, most like a liberal villain,
Confess’d the vile encounters they have had
A thousand times in secret.

[“Much Ado,” IV.1.93]

Liberal was used 16c.-17c. as a term of reproach with the meaning “free from restraint in speech or action.” The Enlightenment revived it in a positive sense “free from prejudice, tolerant, not bigoted or narrow,” which emerged 1776-88. In 19c. often theological rather than political, opposed to orthodox, used of Unitarians, Universalists, etc. For educational use, see see liberal arts.

Purely in reference to political opinion, “tending in favor of freedom and democracy,” it dates from c. 1801, from French libéral. In English the label at first was applied by opponents (often in the French form and with suggestions of foreign lawlessness) to the party more favorable to individual political freedoms. But also (especially in U.S. politics) tending to mean “favorable to government action to effect social change,” which seems at times to draw more from the religious sense of “free from prejudice in favor of traditional opinions and established institutions” (and thus open to new ideas and plans of reform), which dates from 1823.

This is the attitude of mind which has come to be known as liberal. It implies vigorous convictions, tolerance for the opinions of others, and a persistent desire for sound progress. It is a method of approach which has played a notable and constructive part in our history, and which merits a thorough trial today in the attack on our absorbingly interesting American task. [Guy Emerson, “The New Frontier,” 1920]

 

genius (n.) Look up genius at Dictionary.com late 14c., “tutelary or moral spirit” who guides and governs an individual through life, from Latin genius “guardian deity or spirit which watches over each person from birth; spirit, incarnation; wit, talent;” also “prophetic skill,” originally “generative power” (or “inborn nature”), from PIE *gen(e)-yo-, from root *gene- “to produce, give birth, beget” (see genus). Sense of “characteristic disposition” of a person is from 1580s. Meaning “person of natural intelligence or talent” and that of “exalted natural mental ability” are first recorded 1640s.

genus (n.) Look up genus at Dictionary.com(Latin plural genera), 1550s as a term of logic, “kind or class of things” (biological sense dates from c. 1600), from Latin genus(genitive generis) “race, stock, kind; family, birth, descent, origin,” from PIE root *gene- “to produce, give birth, beget,” with derivatives referring to family and tribal groups.

Cognates in this highly productive word group include Sanskrit janati “begets, bears,” janah “race,” janman- “birth, origin,”jatah “born;” Avestan zizanenti “they bear;” Greek gignesthai “to become, happen,” genos “race, kind,” gonos “birth, offspring, stock;” Latin gignere “to beget,” gnasci “to be born,” genius “procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality,”ingenium “inborn character,” possibly germen “shoot, bud, embryo, germ;” Lithuanian gentis “kinsmen;” Gothic kuni “race;” Old English cennan “beget, create,” gecynd “kind, nature, race;” Old High German kind “child;” Old Irish ro-genar “I was born;” Welsh geni “to be born;” Armenian chanim “I bear, I am born”).

progress (n.) Look up progress at Dictionary.comlate 14c., “a going on, action of walking forward,” from Old French progres (Modern French progrès), from Latin progressus “a going forward,” from past participle of progredi (see progression).

In early use in English especially “a state journey by royalty.” Figurative sense of “growth, development, advancement to higher stages” is from c. 1600. To be in progress “underway” is attested by 1849. Progress report attested by 1865.progressive (adj.) Look up progressive at Dictionary.comc. 1600, “characterized by advancement” (in action, character, etc.), from progress (n.) + -ive, or else from French progressif, from past participle stem of Latin progredi. Of taxation, from 1889; of jazz, from 1947. Meaning “characterized by striving for change and innovation, avant-garde, liberal” is from 1908.

c. 1300, “nobility of rank or birth;” mid-14c., “a fashion or custom of the nobility;” late 14c., “nobility of character,” from Old French genterie, genterise, variant of gentelise “noble birth, aristocracy; courage, honor; kindness, gentleness,” from gentil “high-born, noble, of good family” (see gentle). Meaning “noble persons, the class of well-born and well-bred people” is from 1520s in English, later often in England referring to the upper middle class, persons of means and leisure but below the nobility. Earlier in both senses was gentrice (c. 1200 as “nobility of character,” late 14c. as “noble persons”), and gentry in early use also might have been regarded as a singular of that. In Anglo-Irish, gentry was a name for “the fairies” (1880), and gentle could mean “enchanted” (1823).
early 13c., gentile, gentle “well-born, of noble rank or family,” from Old French gentil/jentil “high-born, worthy, noble, of good family; courageous, valiant; fine, good, fair” (11c., in Modern French “nice, graceful, pleasing; fine, pretty”) and directly from Latin gentilis “of the same family or clan,” in Medieval Latin “of noble or good birth,” from gens (genitive gentis) “race, clan,” from root of gignere “beget,” from PIE root *gene- “to give birth, beget” (see genus).
Sense evolved in English and French to “having the character or manners of one of noble rank or birth,” varying according to how those were defined. From mid-13c. in English as “gracious, kind” (now obsolete), manners prescribed for Christian or chivalrous nobility. From late 13c. as “courteous, polite, well-bred, charming;” c. 1300 as “graceful, beautiful.” Meaning “mild, tender; easy; not harsh” (of animals, things, persons) is from 1550s. Older sense remains in gentleman, and compare gentile (adj.), an alternative form which tends to keep the Biblical senses of the Latin word (though gentle in Middle English sometimes meant “pagan, heathen”), and genteel, which is the same word borrowed again from French. From 1823 as “pertaining to the fairies.”
generous (adj.) Look up generous at Dictionary.com1580s, “of noble birth,” from Middle French généreux (14c.), from Latin generosus “of noble birth,” figuratively “magnanimous, generous,” from genus(genitive generis) “race, stock” (see genus). Secondary senses of “unselfish” (1690s) and “plentiful” (1610s) in English were present in French and in Latin. Related: Generously; generousness.generosity (n.) Look up generosity at Dictionary.comearly 15c., “nobility, goodness of race,” from Latin generositatem (nominative generositas) “nobility, excellence, magnanimity,” from generosus “of noble birth; magnanimous” (see generous). Meaning “munificence, quality of being generous” is recorded from 1670s.benign (adj.) Look up benign at Dictionary.comearly 14c., from Old French benigne (12c., “kind, benign, merciful, gracious;” Modern French bénin, fem. bénigne), from Latin benignus “kindly, kindhearted, friendly, generous,” literally “well born,” from bene “well” (see bene-) + gignere “to bear, beget,” from genus “birth” (see genus). For similar sense evolution, compare gentlekind (adj.), generous. Related: Benignly.
libertine (n.) Look up libertine at Dictionary.comlate 14c., “a freedman, an emancipated slave,” from Latin libertinus “condition of a freedman; member of a class of freedmen,” from libertus “one’s freedmen, emancipated person,” from liber “free” (see liberal (adj.)).

Sense of “freethinker” is first recorded 1560s, from French libertin (1540s) originally the name given to certain pantheistic Protestant sects in France and the Low Countries. This sense partakes more of liberty and liberal than of the classical meaning (in Old French, libertin meant “Saracen slave converted to Christianity”). Meaning “dissolute or licentious person, man given to indulgence of lust” is first recorded 1590s; the darkening of meaning being perhaps due to misunderstanding of Latin libertinus in Acts vi:9. For “condition of being a libertine” 17c English tried libertinage; libertinism (from Frenchlibertinisme).liberate (v.) Look up liberate at Dictionary.com“set free, release from restraint or bondage,” 1620s, from Latin liberatus, past participle of liberare “to set free” (source also of Spanish librar, Frenchlivrer), from liber “free, not a slave, unrestricted” (see liberal (adj.)). Meaning “to free an occupied territory from the enemy” (often used ironically) is from 1942; hence the World War II slang sense “to loot.” Related: Liberated; liberating.liberation (n.) Look up liberation at Dictionary.com“act of setting free from restraint or confinement,” early 15c., from Middle French libération and directly from Latin liberationem (nominative liberatio) “a setting or becoming free,” noun of action from past participle stem of liberare “to set free,” from liber “free” (see liberal (adj.)).

liberty (n.) Look up liberty at Dictionary.comlate 14c., “free choice, freedom to do as one chooses,” also “freedom from the bondage of sin,” from Old French liberte “freedom, liberty, free will” (14c., Modern French liberté), from Latin libertatem (nominative libertas) “civil or political freedom, condition of a free man; absence of restraint; permission,” from liber “free” (see liberal (adj.)). At first of persons; of communities, “state of being free from arbitrary, despotic, or autocratic rule or control” is from late 15c.

The French notion of liberty is political equality; the English notion is personal independence. [William R. Greg, “France in January 1852” in “Miscellaneous Essays”]

Nautical sense of “leave of absence” is from 1758. Meaning “unrestrained action, conduct, or expression” (1550s) led to take liberties “go beyond the bounds of propriety” (1620s). Sense of “privileges by grant” (14c.) led to sense of “a person’s private land” (mid-15c.), within which certain special privileges may be exercised, which yielded in 18c. in both England and America a sense of “a district within a county but having its own justice of the peace,” and also “a district adjacent to a city and in some degree under its municipal jurisdiction” (as in Northern Liberties of Philadelphia). Also compare Old French libertés”local rights, laws, taxes.”

Liberty-cap is from 1803; the American Revolutionary liberty-pole, “tall flagstaff set up in honor of liberty and often surmounted by a liberty-cap” is from 1775. Liberty-cabbage was a World War I U.S. jingoistic euphemism for sauerkraut.quadrivium (n.) Look up quadrivium at Dictionary.com“arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy,” 1804 (see liberal arts), from Latin quadrivium, which meant “place where four roads meet, crossroads,” fromquadri- “four” (see quadri-) + via “way, road, channel, course” (see via). The adjective quadrivial is attested from late 15c. in English with the sense “having four roads.”frank (adj.) Look up frank at Dictionary.comc. 1300, “free, liberal, generous;” 1540s, “outspoken,” from Old French franc “free (not servile); without hindrance, exempt from; sincere, genuine, open, gracious, generous; worthy, noble, illustrious” (12c.), from Medieval Latin francus “free, at liberty, exempt from service,” as a noun, “a freeman, a Frank” (see Frank).

A generalization of the tribal name; the connection is that Franks, as the conquering class, alone had the status of freemen in a world that knew only free, captive, or slave. For sense connection of “being one of the nation” and “free,” compare Latin liber “free,” from the same root as German Leute “nation, people” (see liberal (adj.)) and Slavic “free” words (Old Church Slavonic svobodi, Polish swobodny, Serbo-Croatian slobodan) which are cognates of the first element in English sibling “brother, sister” (in Old English used more generally: “relative, kinsman”). For the later sense development, compare ingenuity.deliver (v.) Look up deliver at Dictionary.comc. 1200, “save, rescue, set free, liberate,” from Old French delivrer “to set free; remove; save, preserve; hand over (goods),” also used of childbirth, from Late Latin deliberare, from de- “away” (see de-) + Latin liberare “to free” (see liberal (adj.)).

Childbirth sense in English, “to bring (a woman) to childbirth,” is from c. 1300. Sense of “hand over, give, give up, yield” is c. 1300. in English, which brings it in opposition to its root. Meaning “project, throw” is 1590s. Related: Delivered; delivering.munificent (adj.) Look up munificent at Dictionary.com1580s, back-formation from munificence, or else from Latin munificent-, stem of munificus “bountiful, liberal, generous” (see munificence).eleutherian (adj.) Look up eleutherian at Dictionary.com1620s, from Greek eleutherios “like a free man, noble-minded, frank, liberal,” literally “freeing, delivering, releaser,” also the title of Zeus as protector of political freedom, from eleutheria “freedom,” from PIE *leu-dheros.artful (adj.) Look up artful at Dictionary.com1610s, “learned, well-versed in the (liberal) arts,” also “characterized by technical skill,” from art (n.) + -ful. Meaning “skilled in adapting means to ends” is from 1739. Related: Artfully; artfulness.unbounded (adj.) Look up unbounded at Dictionary.com1590s, “not limited in extent,” from un- (1) “not” + past participle of bound (v.1). Sense of “generous, profuse, liberal” is recorded from 1704. Related:Unboundedness.munificence (n.) Look up munificence at Dictionary.comearly 15c., from Middle French munificence, from Latin munificentia “bountifulness, liberality, generosity,” from stem of munificus “generous, bountiful, liberal,” literally “present-making,” from munus “gift or service, duty, office” (see municipal) + unstressed stem of facere “to do” (see factitious).charitable (adj.) Look up charitable at Dictionary.comc. 1200, in reference to the Christian virtue, from Old French charitable, from charité (see charity). Meaning “liberal in treatment of the poor” is from c. 1400; that of “inclined to impute favorable motives to others” is from 1620s. Related: Charitableness; charitably.progressive (adj.) Look up progressive at Dictionary.comc. 1600, “characterized by advancement” (in action, character, etc.), from progress (n.) + -ive, or else from French progressif, from past participle stem of Latin progredi. Of taxation, from 1889; of jazz, from 1947. Meaning “characterized by striving for change and innovation, avant-garde, liberal” is from 1908.

In the socio-political sense “favoring reform; radically liberal,” it emerged in various British contexts from the 1880s; in the U.S. it was active as a movement in the 1890s and a generation thereafter, the name being taken again from time to time, most recently by some more liberal Democrats and other social activists, by c. 2000. The noun in the sense “one who favors social and political change in the name of progress” is first attested 1865 (originally in Christianity). Earlier in a like sense were progressionist (1849, adjective; 1884, noun), progressist (1848). Related: Progressively; progressiveness.Libra (n.) Look up Libra at Dictionary.comzodiac constellation, late Old English, from Latin libra “a balance, pair of scales,” also “pound (unit of weight),” from Proto-Italic *leithra- “pound.” Nativized in Old Norse as skala-merki. De Vaan compares Greek litra “name of a Sicilian coin,” which “was probably borrowed from an Italic language at the stage containing [-thr-]liter (n.) Look up liter at Dictionary.com1797, from French litre (1793), from litron, obsolete French measure of capacity for grain, from Medieval Latin litra, from Greek litra “pound (unit of weight),” which is apparently from the same Sicilian Italic source as Latin libra (see Libra).livre (n.) Look up livre at Dictionary.comformer French money, 1550s, from French livre “pound,” in Old French in both the weight and money senses, from Latin libra “pound (unit of weight);” seeLibra. The monetary sense in Latin was in the derived libella “small silver coin.” Equivalent to the 20c. franc, the livre was made up of 20 sous.lira (n.) Look up lira at Dictionary.comItalian monetary unit, 1610s, from Italian lira, literally “pound,” from Latin libra “pound (unit of weight);” see Libra, and compare livre.level (n.) Look up level at Dictionary.commid-14c., “tool to indicate a horizontal line,” from Old French livel “a level” (13c.), ultimately from Latin libella “a balance, level” (also a monetary unit), diminutive of libra “balance, scale, unit of weight” (see Libra). Spanish nivel, Modern French niveau are from the same source but altered by dissimilation.

Meaning “position as marked by a horizontal line” (as in sea-level) is from 1530s; meaning “flat surface” is from 1630s; meaning “level tract of land” is from 1620s. Figurative meaning in reference to social, moral, or intellectual condition is from c. 1600. Figurative phrase on the level “fair, honest” is from 1872; earlier it meant “moderate, without great ambition” (1790).equilibrium (n.) Look up equilibrium at Dictionary.comc. 1600, “state of mental balance,” from Latin aequilibrium “an even balance; a horizontal position,” from aequilibris “equal, level, horizontal, evenly balanced,” from aequus “equal” (see equal (adj.)) + libra “a balance, pair of scales, plummet” (see Libra). Related: Equilibrious.deliberation (n.) Look up deliberation at Dictionary.comlate 14c., Old French deliberation, from Latin deliberationem (nominative deliberatio), noun of action from past participle stem of deliberare “consider carefully, consult,” literally “weigh well,” from de- “entirely” (see de-) + -liberare, altered (probably by influence of liberare “to free, liberate”) from librare”to balance, make level,” from libra “pair of scales, a balance” (see Libra).pound (n.1) Look up pound at Dictionary.commeasure of weight, Old English pund “pound” (in weight or money), also “pint,” from Proto-Germanic *punda- “pound” as a measure of weight (source of Gothic pund, Old High German phunt, German Pfund, Middle Dutch pont, Old Frisian and Old Norse pund), early borrowing from Latin pondo “pound,” originally in libra pondo “a pound by weight,” from pondo (adv.) “by weight,” ablative of *pondus “weight” (see span (v.)). Meaning “unit of money” was in Old English, originally “pound of silver.”

At first “12 ounces;” meaning “16 ounces” was established before late 14c. Pound cake (1747) so called because it has a pound, more or less, of each ingredient. Pound of flesh is from “Merchant of Venice” IV.i. The abbreviations lb., £ are from libra “pound,” and reflect the medieval custom of keeping accounts in Latin (see Libra).l.s.d. Look up l.s.d. at Dictionary.comabbreviation of British currency units, from first letters of Latin librae (see Libra), solidi (see solidus), denarii (see denarius), Roman equivalent of “pounds, shillings, pence.”balance (n.) Look up balance at Dictionary.comearly 13c., “apparatus for weighing,” from Old French balance (12c.) “balance, scales for weighing,” also in the figurative sense; from Medieval Latinbilancia, from Late Latin bilanx, from Latin (libra) bilanx “(scale) having two pans,” possibly from Latin bis “twice” + lanx “dish, plate, scale of a balance.” The accounting sense is from 1580s; the meaning “general harmony between parts” is from 1732; sense of “physical equipoise” is from 1660s. Balance of power in the geopolitical sense is from 1701. Many figurative uses (such as hang in the balance, late 14c.), are from Middle English image of the scales in the hands of personified Justice, Fortune, Fate, etc.library (n.) Look up library at Dictionary.complace for books, late 14c., from Anglo-French librarie, Old French librairie “collection of books” (14c.), noun use of adj. librarius “concerning books,” from Latin librarium “chest for books,” from liber (genitive libri) “book, paper, parchment,” originally “the inner bark of trees,” probably a derivative of PIE root*leub(h)- “to strip, to peel” (see leaf). The equivalent word in most Romance languages now means “bookseller’s shop.” Old English had bochord, literally “book hord.”librarian (n.) Look up librarian at Dictionary.com“custodian of a library,” 1713; see library + -an. Earlier form was library-keeper (1640s), and librarian was used earlier in a sense “scribe” (1660s).zodiac (n.) Look up zodiac at Dictionary.comlate 14c., from Old French zodiaque, from Latin zodiacus “zodiac,” from Greek zodiakos (kyklos) “zodiac (circle),” literally “circle of little animals,” fromzodiaion, diminutive of zoion “animal” (see zoo).

Libra is not an animal, but it was not a zodiac constellation to the Greeks, who reckoned 11 but counted Scorpio and its claws (including what is now Libra) as a “double constellation.” Libra was figured back in by the Romans. In Old English the zodiac was twelf tacna “the twelve signs,” and in Middle English also Our Ladye’s Waye and the Girdle of the Sky.scale (n.2) Look up scale at Dictionary.comweighing instrument, early 15c.; earlier “pan of a balance” (late 14c.); earlier still “drinking cup” (c. 1200), from Old Norse skal “bowl, drinking cup,” in plural, “weighing scale” from a noun derivative of Proto-Germanic *skæla “split, divide” (source also of Old Norse skel “shell,” Old English scealu, Old Saxon skala “a bowl (to drink from),” Old High German scala, German Schale “a bowl, dish, cup,” Middle Dutch scale, Dutch schaal “drinking cup, bowl, shell, scale of a balance”), from PIE root *skel- (1) “to cut” (see scale (n.1)).

The connecting sense seems to be of half of a bivalve (“split”) shell used as a drinking cup or a pan for weighing. But according to Paulus Diaconus the “drinking cup” sense originated from a supposed custom of making goblets from skulls (see skull). Related: Scales. This, as a name for the zodiac constellation Libra, is attested in English from 1630s.mark (n.2) Look up mark at Dictionary.com“unit of money or weight,” late Old English marc, a unit of weight (chiefly for gold or silver) equal to about eight ounces, probably from Old Norse mörk”unit of weight,” cognate with German Mark, probably ultimately a derivative of mark (n.1), perhaps in sense of “imprinted weight or coin.” Used from 18c. in reference to various continental coinages, especially. the silver coin of Germany first issued 1875.mark (v.) Look up mark at Dictionary.com“to put a mark on,” Old English mearcian (West Saxon), merciga (Anglian) “to trace out boundaries,” from Proto-Germanic *markojan (source also of Old Norse merkja, Old Saxon markon, Old Frisian merkia, Old High German marchon, German merken “to mark, note,” Middle Dutch and Dutch merken), from the root of mark (n.1).

Influenced by Scandinavian cognates. Meaning “to have a mark” is from c. 1400; that of “to notice, observe” is late 14c. Meaning “to put a numerical price on an object for sale” led to verbal phrase mark down (1859). Mark time (1833) is from military drill. Related: Markedmarking. Old French merchier”to mark, note, stamp, brand” is a Germanic loan-word.mark (n.1) Look up mark at Dictionary.com“trace, impression,” Old English mearc (West Saxon), merc (Mercian) “boundary, sign, limit, mark,” from Proto-Germanic *marko (source also of Old Norse merki “boundary, sign,” mörk “forest,” which often marked a frontier; Old Frisian merke, Gothic marka “boundary, frontier,” Dutch merk “mark, brand,” German Mark “boundary, boundary land”), from PIE *merg- “edge, boundary, border” (source also of Latin margo “margin;” Avestan mareza-“border,” Old Irish mruig, Irish bruig “borderland,” Welsh bro “district”).

The primary sense is probably “boundary,” which had evolved by Old English through “sign of a boundary,” through “sign in general,” then to “impression or trace forming a sign.” Meaning “any visible trace or impression” first recorded c. 1200. Sense of “line drawn to indicate starting point of a race” (as in on your marks …) first attested 1887. The Middle English sense of “target” (c. 1200) is the notion in marksman and slang sense “victim of a swindle” (1883). The notion of “sign, token” is behind the meaning “numerical award given by a teacher” (1829). Influenced by Scandinavian cognates.

mark (n.2) Look up mark at Dictionary.com“unit of money or weight,” late Old English marc, a unit of weight (chiefly for gold or silver) equal to about eight ounces, probably from Old Norse mörk”unit of weight,” cognate with German Mark, probably ultimately a derivative of mark (n.1), perhaps in sense of “imprinted weight or coin.” Used from 18c. in reference to various continental coinages, especially. the silver coin of Germany first issued 1875.mark (v.) Look up mark at Dictionary.com“to put a mark on,” Old English mearcian (West Saxon), merciga (Anglian) “to trace out boundaries,” from Proto-Germanic *markojan (source also of Old Norse merkja, Old Saxon markon, Old Frisian merkia, Old High German marchon, German merken “to mark, note,” Middle Dutch and Dutch merken), from the root of mark (n.1).

Influenced by Scandinavian cognates. Meaning “to have a mark” is from c. 1400; that of “to notice, observe” is late 14c. Meaning “to put a numerical price on an object for sale” led to verbal phrase mark down (1859). Mark time (1833) is from military drill. Related: Markedmarking. Old French merchier”to mark, note, stamp, brand” is a Germanic loan-word.mark (n.1) Look up mark at Dictionary.com“trace, impression,” Old English mearc (West Saxon), merc (Mercian) “boundary, sign, limit, mark,” from Proto-Germanic *marko (source also of Old Norse merki “boundary, sign,” mörk “forest,” which often marked a frontier; Old Frisian merke, Gothic marka “boundary, frontier,” Dutch merk “mark, brand,” German Mark “boundary, boundary land”), from PIE *merg- “edge, boundary, border” (source also of Latin margo “margin;” Avestan mareza-“border,” Old Irish mruig, Irish bruig “borderland,” Welsh bro “district”).

The primary sense is probably “boundary,” which had evolved by Old English through “sign of a boundary,” through “sign in general,” then to “impression or trace forming a sign.” Meaning “any visible trace or impression” first recorded c. 1200. Sense of “line drawn to indicate starting point of a race” (as in on your marks …) first attested 1887. The Middle English sense of “target” (c. 1200) is the notion in marksman and slang sense “victim of a swindle” (1883). The notion of “sign, token” is behind the meaning “numerical award given by a teacher” (1829). Influenced by Scandinavian cognates.Mark Look up Mark at Dictionary.commasc. proper name, variant of Marcus (q.v.)marking (n.) Look up marking at Dictionary.comOld English mearcung “action of making marks, branding; mark, pattern of marks, characteristic; constellation,” verbal noun from mark (v.). Related:Markings.marker (n.) Look up marker at Dictionary.comOld English mearcere “writer, notary” (glossing Latin notarius “clerk”), literally “one who marks,” agent noun from mark (v). Not found again until late 15c., hence modern use is perhaps a separate formation. Meaning “monument stone” is from 1888. Meaning “felt-tipped marker pen” is from 1951, so called because their purpose was to “highlight” text.marked (adj.) Look up marked at Dictionary.com“having a mark,” Old English gemearcodan (see mark (v.)). Meaning “clearly defined” (pronounced as two syllables) is from 1795. Related: Markedly.Marked man “one who is watched with hostile intent” is from 1769.marksman (n.) Look up marksman at Dictionary.com1650s, from mark (n.1) in Middle English sense of “target” + man; with genitive -s. Earlier form was markman (1570s).Denmark Look up Denmark at Dictionary.comfrom Dane, the people’s name, + Danish mark “border” (see mark (n.1)).marque (n.) Look up marque at Dictionary.com“seizure by way of reprisal,” mid-15c., in letters of marque “official permission to capture enemy merchant ships,” from Anglo-French mark (mid-14c.), via Old French from Old Provençal marca “reprisal,” from marcar “seize as a pledge, mark,” probably from a Germanic source (compare Old High Germanmarchon “delimit, mark;” see mark (n.1)), but the sense evolution is difficult.benchmark (n.) Look up benchmark at Dictionary.comalso bench-mark, “surveyor’s point of reference,” 1838, from a specialized surveyors’ use of bench (n.) + mark (n.1); figurative sense is from 1884.watermark (n.) Look up watermark at Dictionary.comalso water-mark, 1708, “distinctive mark on paper,” from water (n.1) + mark (n.1). Similar formation in German wassermarke. Not produced by water, but probably so called because it looks like a wet spot. The verb is recorded from 1866. Related: Watermarked.trademark (n.) Look up trademark at Dictionary.comalso trade-mark, 1838 (the thing itself attested continuously from 14c., apparently originally the watermarks on paper), from trade (n.) + mark (n.1). Figurative use by 1869. As a verb, from 1904. Related: Trademarked; trademarking.bookmark (n.) Look up bookmark at Dictionary.comalso book-mark, 1840, from book (n.) + mark (n.1). Bookmarker is older (1838). As a verb, by 1900. Related: Bookmarked; bookmarking.birthmark (n.) Look up birthmark at Dictionary.comalso birth-mark, by 1805, from birth (n.) + mark (n.1). Birth marks in 17c. could be longing marks; supposedly they showed the image of something longed for by the mother while expecting. Related: Birthmarked.margin (n.) Look up margin at Dictionary.commid-14c., “edge of a sea or lake;” late 14c., “space between a block of text and the edge of a page,” from Latin marginem (nominative margo) “edge, brink, border, margin,” from PIE *merg- “edge, border, boundary” (see mark (n.1)). General sense of “boundary space; rim or edge of anything” is from late 14c. Meaning “comfort allowance, cushion” is from 1851; margin of safety first recorded 1888. Stock market sense of “sum deposited with a broker to cover risk of loss” is from 1848. Related: Margins.margrave (n.) Look up margrave at Dictionary.commilitary governor of a German border province, 1550s, from Middle Dutch markgrave (Dutch markgraaf), literally “count of the border,” from Old High German marcgravo; second element from graf “count, earl” (Old High German gravo, gravjo), from West Germanic *grafa “a designation of rank, possibly borrowed from Greek grapheus “scribe.” For first element see mark (n.1). Later a hereditary title under the Holy Roman Empire. His wife was amargravine.march (n.2) Look up march at Dictionary.com“boundary,” late 13c. (in reference to the borderlands beside Wales, rendering Old English Mercia), from Old French marche “boundary, frontier,” from Frankish *marka or some other Germanic source (compare Old High German marchon “to mark out, delimit,” German Mark “boundary;” see mark (n.1)). Now obsolete. There was a verb in Middle English (c. 1300), “to have a common boundary,” from Old French marchier “border upon, lie alongside.” This is the old Germanic word for “border, boundary,” but as it came to mean “borderland” in many languages new words were borrowed in the original sense (compare border(n.), bound (n.)”border, boundary”). Modern German Grenze is from Middle High German grenize (13c., replacing Old High Germanmarcha), a loan-word from Slavic (compare Polish and Russian granica). Dutch grens, Danish groense, Swedish gräns are from German.remark (v.) Look up remark at Dictionary.com1630s, “to mark out, distinguish” modeled on French remarquer “to mark, note, heed,” formed in Middle French from re-, intensive prefix (see re-), +marquer “to mark,” probably from a Germanic source such as Old High German marchon “to delimit” (see mark (n.1)).

Meaning “take notice of” is from 1670s; that of “make a comment” is first attested 1690s, from notion of “make a verbal observation” or “call attention to specific points.” Related: Remarked; remarking.postmark (n.) Look up postmark at Dictionary.com1670s, from post (n.3) + mark (n.1). As a verb from 1716. Related: Postmarked; postmarking.hallmark (n.) Look up hallmark at Dictionary.com1721, official stamp of purity in gold and silver articles, from Goldsmiths’ Hall in London, site of the assay office; see hall + mark (n.1). General sense of “mark of quality” first recorded 1864. As a verb from 1773.earmark (n.) Look up earmark at Dictionary.commid-15c., from ear (n.1) + mark (n.1). Originally a cut or mark in the ear of sheep and cattle, serving as a sign of ownership (also a punishment of certain criminals); first recorded 1570s in figurative sense “stamp of ownership.”landmark (n.) Look up landmark at Dictionary.comOld English landmearc “object set up to mark the boundaries of a kingdom, estate, etc.,” from land (n.) + mearc (see mark (n.1)). General sense of “conspicuous object in a landscape,” originally especially one that can be seen from sea, is from 1560s. Modern figurative sense of “event, etc., considered a high point in history” is from 1859.marrow (n.) Look up marrow at Dictionary.comlate 14c., from Old English mearg “marrow,” earlier mærh, from Proto-Germanic *mazga- (source also of Old Norse mergr, Old Saxon marg, Old Frisianmerg, Middle Dutch march, Dutch merg, Old High German marg, German Mark “marrow”), from PIE *mozgo- “marrow” (source also of Sanskrit majjan-, Avestan mazga- “marrow,” Old Church Slavonic mozgu, Lithuanian smagenes “brain”). Figurative sense of “inmost or central part” is attested from c. 1400.marcescent (adj.) Look up marcescent at Dictionary.com“withering,” 1727, from Latin marcescentem (nominative marcescens), present participle of marcescere “to wither, languish, droop, decay, pine away,” inchoative of marcere “to wither, droop, be faint,” from Proto-Italic *mark-e-, from PIE root *merk- “to decay” (source also of Sanskrit marka-“destruction, death;” Avestan mareka- “ruin;” Lithuanian mirkti “become weak,” merkti “to soak;” Ukrainian dialect morokva “quagmire, swamp,” Middle High German meren “dip bread into water or wine,” perhaps also Middle Irish mraich, Welsh brag “a sprouting out; malt”).merit (n.) Look up merit at Dictionary.comc. 1200, “spiritual credit” (for good works, etc.); c. 1300, “spiritual reward,” from Old French merite “wages, pay, reward; thanks; merit, moral worth, that which assures divine pity,” and directly from Latin meritum “a merit, service, kindness, benefit, favor; worth, value, importance,” neuter of meritus, past participle of merere, meriri “to earn, deserve, acquire, gain,” from PIE root *(s)mer- (2) “to allot, assign” (source also of Greek meros “part, lot,” moira”share, fate,” moros “fate, destiny, doom,” Hittite mark “to divide” a sacrifice).

Sense of “worthiness, excellence” is from early 14c.; from late 14c. as “condition or conduct that deserves either reward or punishment;” also “a reward, benefit.” Related: Merits. Merit system attested from 1880. Merit-monger was in common use 16c.-17c. in a sense roughly of “do-gooder.”market (n.) Look up market at Dictionary.comearly 12c., “a meeting at a fixed time for buying and selling livestock and provisions,” from Old North French market “marketplace, trade, commerce” (Old French marchiet, Modern French marché), from Latin mercatus “trading, buying and selling, trade, market” (source of Italian mercato, Spanish mercado, Dutch markt, German Markt), from past participle of mercari “to trade, deal in, buy,” from merx (genitive mercis) “wares, merchandise,” from Italic root*merk-, possibly from Etruscan, referring to various aspects of economics. Meaning “public building or space where markets are held” first attested mid-13c. Sense of “sales, as controlled by supply and demand” is from 1680s. Market value (1690s) first attested in writings of John Locke. Market economy is from 1948; market research is from 1921.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s